The most important are 5th freedom rights as they allow you to fly between two points (excluding your hub/country) and allow pax to book for that sector only. You’ll find that quite a few airlines have 5th freedom rights for routes between Australia and the Far East.
The other alternative is having specific treaties - such as the Open Skies treaty which allows any EU carrier to fly between any EU airport direct to the USA.
A quick google of the terms will give a nice little knowledge pool. Or if you’re anything like me - keep yourself updated through www.airliners.net
If I have a holding based in a European country and then I have a subsidiary with headquaters in other EU contry, why does it say restricted flight rights? I understood that with the subsidiary there should be no problem to fly inside the EU…
Well, that’s the restriction: You are allowed to transport passengers on routes inside the EU, but not to destinations outside the EU (except on routes out of the home country of your holding). Restricted does not mean forbidden