Rajawali Group Media Center


January, 2016

Rajawali Group is proud to end 2015 with a very positive result for the group. At Annual Shareholders Meeting and Employee Dinner held in Jakarta is happy to announce that Rajawali Nusantara is currently number one airline in Indonesia. The CEO also disclose some of the profit will be disbursed to all employee, an average sum of two months salary can be expected, corresponding to employee performance review, with a minimum of one-month up to four-months for high performing one. The shareholder also award the CEO and his management team with significant one time payout.

The shareholder meeting also agree to convert a Boeing 787-9 into VIP configuration for private and company use at CEO discretion.



The long-haul aircraft interior design developed by BMW Group DesignworksUSA forges a unique link between diversity and modern luxury tailor-made to individual requirements. The interior space is absed on a new three-dimensional concept that replaces the traditional structure normally found in conventional aircraft. The lateral usage of space is complemented by a multi level vertical experience giving the aircraft a predominantly open-spaced atmosphere in which even longer flights become a pleasant experience.

With vertical lines and a high degree of transparency – right down to a glass floor that provides a view onto the vehicles parked in the cargo hold below – a very versatile environment has been created. The unique interior design of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner is conceived for just about 20 passengers.



The designers have given special consideration to the needs of highly discerning travellers to whom an aircraft is not solely a means of transport, but also a place to live and express their personality. The ideal daily routine in which office duties, caring for guests, relaxing, and recuperating prior to starting another busy day and after landing at a destination were key design objectives.



The concept includes an exclusive leisure environment created for the international business traveller to rejuvenate and enjoy some quiet time. From the desk the traveller’s eyes may wander through the electro chromatic glass enabling a glance throughout the main lounge with the cocktail bar in the foreground.
A fully equipped gourmet kitchen and a big-screen theatre are also at their. An elegantly furnished master suite is available for the CEO and there is two spacious guest suites for other passengers. A fitness centre, sauna and wellness facilities are located on the lower level of the passenger area. A section of the cargo hold is reserved for vehicle transportation.
Through the inclusion of part of the cargo hold, it was possible to increase the space occupied by passengers during their stay on board. The result is a feeling of spaciousness far superior to the conditions that prevail on conventional commercial aircraft. This is enhanced by elegant and distinctively designed fittings featuring bright, high-grade materials, state-of-the-art technology and architecturally sophisticated details.
Two ultimate driving machines, a BMW i8 and a white BMW 540 M come along in the cargo hold to make sure the aircraft passengers continue to travel in style while on the ground at destination. 
"I was excited, not only with all the bonus I get, but more to how the airline has developed into a significant airline group. And I can guarantee that this is just the beginning. We will propel the group even further, reach more destinations, fly more people further, prosper more employees and bring more money to shareholders," said Revan Amadeus, Rajawali Group CEO.
/edit: fix image link (16/03/03)


Cool illustrations. Somebody gets some awesome new toys :slight_smile:


Very nice livery


February, 2016


Rajawali Nusantara, in cooperation with SkyGate II Inc, the state operator of Soekarno-Hatta Internatinal Airport (CGK/WIII), proudly announce the grand launching of Terminal 3 Ultimate. The two-months trial run of terminal operation during peak Christmas and New Year season in December and January has prove the excellence operation of the new terminal. The T3 designed as aeropolis terminal, featuring 40 gates and 20 remote stands, including 5 A380-capable gates, boasting 354,000 square-metres luxurious area to handle estimated 30 million passengers per annum.


T3 will be solely used by Rajawali Nusantara and its alliance partner Globe Alliance. On the front line of servicing passengers, T3 spacious check-in counters welcome passengers with 300 counters, staffed with over 900 guest service assistants, 300 ramp agents, 100 cargo controllers. 24-hours commercial spaces, which include a cinema, spa and well being, swimming pool, showers, sleeping room, hundreds of retail stores and duty free, as well as a dozen of gardens, make sure the passengers well fed, entertained, relax and happy, even during the longest connecting flights. Rajawali Nusantara Business and First Class passengers will have complimentary access to Rajawali Lounge, while Globe Alliance Elite will have a dedicated Globe Premiere Lounge.  


Integration with other terminal is seamless with SkyTrain system and transit passengers don't have to pass immigration to visit other terminal. For city transfer, MRT and Bus connect the airport to the city center as well as secondary airport of Jakarta, Halim Perdana Kusuma, and the Sea Port. The terminal also offer 50,000 parking lots.


"We are excited to be able to serve our passengers even better, not only we provide extensive connection from Jakarta, but we also provide a nice place for our passengers to connect. We hope this will draw even more connecting traffic," Revan Amadeus, CEO of Rajawali Group

"We are pleased with our cooperation with Rajawali Group, by offering superb connecting option in CGK, SkyGate II has benefit from increased revenue, from passengers servicing fee as well as from commercial spaces rental. We wholeheartedly support whatever Rajawali Nusantara want to develop in our airports around the country," Sulistyo Wimbo, CEO of SkyGate II Inc.

On behalf of the airline and the airport operator, welcome to T3 - your gaT3 to Indonesia.


March, 2016

Rajawali Nusantara Airlines celebrate its humble 1st Anniversary in the mystical island paradise of God. The venue is Garuda Wisnu Kencana, the iconic landmark of Bali, a 60 ha area of cultural park located in Ungasan, Bali, approximately 15 minutes driving from I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport (DPS/WADD).


The park, boasting one of the largest artistic masterpiece and most astonishing works of arts ever created, has been transformed into a gigantic outdoor dining space, complete with glamorous lighting to create unprecedented ambiance for the occasion.



VVIP guest list include Indonesian Minister of Transportation, 36 Ambassadors from the airline international destinations, executive for aircraft manufacturers, Boeing, Embraer and engine manufacturer, Globe Alliance airline members executives, Partner agents and travel journalist. The airline allocate two of its Boeing 787-8 including one in private configuration and one in special anniversary livery, four Boeing 737-700ERs and four Embraer E195 AR to transport VVIP and guests. Accommodation is provided at The Mulia, Westin Nusa Dua, and a number of other luxury hotel in Nusa Dua area. 



"On behalf of the government and people of Indonesia, we would like to congratulate Rajawali Nusantara of its 1st Anniversary. We are extremely proud of what the airline has achieve in just one year after its foundation. Keep flying ever higher, take us to more destination and bring people of the world to our wonderful Indonesia," said Ignasius Jonan, Minister of Transportation, Republic of Indonesia.
"As aircraft manufacturer, Boeing is extremely happy to see the success of one of our customer. Happy 1st Anniversary and with you more successful flight into the future. We are waiting for more orders on our best-selling aircraft, Boeing 737 and Boeing 787, and we certainly have 777 and 747 on offer should you want bigger toys," said Randy Tinseth, VP Marketing, Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
"Congratulation of your 1st Anniversary from the people of Australia. We love to come to Bali, we love to come to Indonesia. We are happy to share the market share of air travel with our Indonesian counterpart. Hope we can maintain this good cooperation and increase the number of people travelling between the two countries," said H.E. Paul Grigson, Australian Ambassador to Indonesia.
"Thank you your excellencies, dignitary and distinguished guest, for coming to our 1st Anniversary Celebration, here in Bali. When the government approach me with a task of managing the privatized state-owned flag carrier, I was initially hesitate as it's no doubt an enormous and almost impossible. How to turn a struggling carrier, with a 5 decades huge debts, operational losses that constantly eating its assets, big workforce and unproductive assets. But then my passion in aviation conquer my doubts and now I am happy to see the progress the airline has achieved. 
In a year we have turn around the ailing flag carrier. From 100s unproductive airplanes, we now have more than 500 airplanes flying more than 80% full to 100 destinations. In a year we have carried almost 40 million passengers, launched 6 subsidiaries, established a successful global alliance, expanded our home base with superior terminal, and last but not least, the news just coming in, we are finally Skytrax 5 Stars Airlines. We are grateful for the support of the people of Indonesia and our international passengers, the Governments of Indonesia and foreign countries that allow us to serve their airport, the aircraft and engine manufacturers and the entire supply chain that have provide us with superior airplanes to fly our passengers, the airline partners and agents partners that helps us unparalleled network, and all our employee that have work hard to see this day coming. We still have a lot to do, the airline has big potential yet to be unleashed. Our celebration in Bali is a hint where we are heading after this, watch us, this is just the beginning,"  said Revan Amadeus, Group CEO of Rajawali.


Ternate, March 2016


Earlier this month, Rajawali Nusantara has received 5 new Boeing 737-800 SFP and become the first operator in Riem to fly the Next Generation plane equipped with enhanced short runway landing and take-off capabilities. Water cannon salute welcome the Boeing 737-800 SFP operating as RI 6171 into Sultan Babullah Airport of Ternate. 

"We have worked with Rajawali to enhance the 737 and add value to its operations. Our partnership drove development of these enhancements that now will benefit the product line and many airlines around the world," said John Wojick, SVP - Global Sales & Marketing, Boeing Commercial Airplanes.

"Thanks to Boeing we can now fly to some short runways around the island of Indonesia. Previous we are unable to serve Ternate direct from Jakarta due to short runway. With the new Boeing 737-800 SFP now we could explore more exotic destination and also we are looking forward to receive our specially modified Embraer E190," said Revan Amadeus, Group CEO, Rajawali.

Beside the five Boeing 737-800 SFP, the airline also place order for 10 specially modified Embraer 190 for short field performance. When asked about possibility of having Airbus in its fleet, the CEO said the airline is considering it.

"We are open to the possibility of having Airbus A320 NEO in our narrow-body fleet. We are running the number and its certainly look promising. However our current narrow-body fleet is built around Boeing and Embraer. The oldest just turn one year old, so they still have plenty of life before we need to consider replacing them," said Revan.


Nairobi, April 2016

Rajawali Africa is set on another turnaround plan to further penetrate the African market. The Airline just recently turn red after months of healthy profits, despite being left alone in the market by a giant airline. The recent new entrants have threaten its market-share and thus the turn around plan is on the go.

"It's been a while since we seriously focus on our African venture. It has so much potential yet the management has been trapped in comfort zone and leave the airline in auto pilot. This time we have to override control, disengage the autopilot and fly the airline into the future," said Revan Amadeus, acting CEO, Rajawali Africa.

The turn-around plan include fleet modernization, with up to 20 A319 and 20 CR7 ordered. The airline is also looking to establish a regional alliance in Africa to strengthen its network and benefit from Yamoussoukro treaty. To raise cash for long term expansion, the airline might consider an IPO. 

"We love our Antonovs, it's such a good airplane for the market. The Airbus and CRJ will enrich our passengers' experience while make sure it will not be so easy for our competitors to kidnap our passengers," said Revan.


Karachi, May 2016

Rajawali Group has decided to liquidate its holding in Pakistan. For the last 9 months, Rajawali Pakistan has not been able to generate a single profit. Pakistan is an open investment country, which allow foreign holding to set up a subsidiary and doing business just like a local airline. The departure of Rajawali Group from the country left two foreign subsidiaries operating in the country.

"I regret this has to happened, we are very sorry to disappoint the Pakistani as we failed to deliver what we promise. I took full responsibility, while it's very difficult for the market to support one, let alone three airlines, it's more on the management side that failed. We failed to react at the first sign of the competition, we failed to exploit our first mover momentum to secure significant market share thus giving up to the competition. With more than AS$15 million to support the airline, we determined that the business case is no longer viable and thus we need to do what is necessary," said Revan Amadeus, Group CEO, Rajawali.

Before the liquidation, the now defunct airline re-booked all passengers thru GoGo Pakistan and Rajawali Qatar. Full refund also offered for those who wish to cancel their trip. The liquidation cost a total of AS$25 million and the proceed will be used to fund expansion of other Rajawali subsidiaries.


Doha, September 2016


Rajawali Qatar welcome two newly acquired Airbus A380-800 into the airline fleet.The quad-engines A7-RQQ and A7-RQR will the new flagship aircraft flying the airline flagship routes RQ1/2 Doha - London vv and RQ11/12 Doha -Singapore, starting 9th September 2016. The aircraft is certified to a maximum capacity of 853 passengers and usually configured to comfortably seats 550 passengers in 3 class configuration. Rajawali Qatar signature configuration is definitely beyond the usual comfort configuration and should definitely set the new standard for the competition, seating 330 distinguished passengers in 4 class configuration.


The aircraft main deck is configured to welcome 250 passengers in Qatari Smart Travel Class with it's generous pitch and extensive extra reclining space, unparalleled in its own class. Gourmet dining is carefully prepared and beautifully served to the passengers while three Travel Lounges are conveniently accessible stretching your leg during long flights and refresh yourself with snacks and beverages. 


In the upper deck, we are thrilled to seat 66 passengers in Qatari Premium Business Class. The fully lie-flat seat converts into a bed in the sky, with state of the art in-flight entertainment system and complimentary in-flight wifi to keep you entertained and connected during the flight. On-demand a la carte menu, signature caviar service and delicious Laduree desserts will tantalize your discerning taste the moment you embark on the aircraft. 


Our Qatari Royal First on the A380 deliver incomparable first class travel experience no other airline can match, carefully designed to seat 12 passengers and treat them like the royals and dignitaries. Rajawali VIP service is offered for our Qatari Royal First from the moment they think of travelling with us, including VIP concierge, luxury airport transfer, in-flight executive chef, Express Immigration and Custom service. In-flight, a personal butler attend to your needs, exceptional gastronomic experience is delivered by the executive chef, stay entertained and connected in the comfort of your seat or mingle with the other at The Qatari Royal Lounge, your sanctuary in the sky. Two showers are available for your to recharge your freshness before landing at your destination. 



and if what we offer so far still not good enough, Rajawali Qatar introduce you the fourth travelling class, a class of its own in the sky, your throne room in the clouds, The Qatari Al-Baker Sky Suite. A bedroom with a double bed, a living room with double seat sofa and dining table, and an en-suite shower room. The Qatari Royal First experience with complimentary RQ-iO service is extended to you and your travelling group whenever you fly on the class.

"Rajawali Qatar are delighted to take delivery of two Airbus A380-800 and redefine luxury premium travel in the gulf. While other airlines are busy marketing their so-called premium economy, our Qatari Smart Travel Class is well positioned above them, so we thank other airline for marketing our superior product. Our Qatari Premium Business Class is comparable to other airline first class, while our Qatari Royal First is simply the icing on the cake. Our business class should be more than enough, but for some affluent people, they just need a little bit more on everything. Our Al-Baker Sky Suite, well, I really don't know what to say. It's a pinnacle of airline travel, the Mecca for platinum flyers, and final destination billions miles flying," said Al Baker, CEO of Rajawali Qatar.

"We are in the right direction by restructuring Rajawali Qatar as premium boutique airline. With bigger airlines dominating Doha, there's no way we could survive and prosper. But here we are, capturing the bread and butter of air travelling by continuously redefining our service standard. Each of 120 aircraft is configured to the most spacious and most luxurious standard in its class. And we are happy with the customer satisfaction that translated into increased business for us. We will continue to reach higher sky to ensure the airline maintain its premium status among the passengers," said Revan Amadeus, Rajawali GCEO 


Loved the livery way to go highlander!!!


While that is a nice livery. Is this the right thread to post it in. What does it mean, what does it add to Rajawali Group? If it is nothing then it might be considered spam and it might be well to have it deleted?


Last sunday there was a little incident with one of your A380. A maletian crew had celebrated a wedding and the Bridal bouquet got there way anyhow in one engine.

Like to apologize for this.

In fact a Air BRITAIN plane got a cargo box on one engine a day before.

Hope the plane is fine, the celebration was funny definitely. ;)

By the way, nice patchwork patern.


Jakarta, December 2016


The Christmas Tree has been erected in our HQ in Jakarta and Rajawali Nusantara is ready to celebrate the season! And we start the celebration by flying our 100,000,000th passenger on board our Boeing 787-9 on RI 9 service from CGK to AMS. What an achievement in only 21 months of operation, yes that's less than two years.

So in light of this and the spirit of the season, Rajawali Nusantara are giving out 1,000 miles bonus to 100,000 lucky passengers who travel between 26th November 2016 to 25th January 2017. In addition, we will also award our top 1000 frequent flyer with a total of 100,000,000 miles. That's a lot of zeroes involved, Happy Holidays dear pax!

Also from the Compliance Department, we proud that all flight schedule under Rajawali Group have complied with the latest regulation regarding slot-blocking and as a group we wholeheartedly support the implementation of anti slot-blocking measures as well as it's speedy implementation. 

That's all the update for now, the management of Rajawali Nusantara and its affiliate will start their annual vacation from 20th December 2016 to 7th January 2017. All operational employees are to report to their head unit and have their income tripled during the season to compensate their work in the holiday season. Happy Holiday from the management and safe flight!


Doha, July 2017

Following months of burning cash, Rajawali Qatar has announced turnaround plan that include immediate grounding of 20 787. For the first half of 2017, Rajawali Qatar SLF has dropped to staggering number of 50%, thanks to state blockade lead by Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its ally as well as Global economic recession which see AGEX drop more than 20% for the last 3 months. In exchange for 10 787-9 and 10 787-8 leaving the fleet, the airline order 20 Boeing 737-900ER. Rajawali Qatar however maintain 10 787-8 for flying its ultra long haul network. 

"We determined to stay in our market, and will do whatever it takes to maintain our presence in the international map, and we shall prevail," said Al Baker, Chief Executive of Rajawali Qatar in press statement.

Rajawali Group has been in the spotlight for continuously subsidized the ailing airline subsidiary. Recent injection of AS$ 100 million has triggered protest among its minority shareholders. Revan Amadeus, the group CEO, declined to comment on the matter, saying it's business as usual. 


Doha, July 2017

In view of the ongoing deteriorating development of Rajawali Qatar, Mr. Stimue, CEO of Qatar Airlines International,today spoke in a press conference at its Headquarter in Millenium Palm Gardens, Doha.

"We are watching our struggeling competitor for month and of course did notice the problems they have. Load factors are decreasing constantly, and A380 operations has ended long ago due to low demand. Of course we are aware that Qatar Intl. has a good share in this development as we clearly dominate the market in Qatar and the entire Gulf Region.

But we are also aware that this process will leave many Rajawali staff unemployed now and in the future. We therefore would like to point out again our will and interest in taking over Rajawali Qatar´s fleet and staff and integrate it in the well-organized Qatar Intl. network", said Mr. Stimue in the press statement.

"Rajawali´s Management should not put thousands of employee´s at risk just to keep a struggeling subsidiary at life until it finally will be to late", he added.s

Mr. Stimue´s comments raised large waves of applause by attending Rajawali staff, that was already hoping for such development.

Qatar Intl. is very well placed in the market and not too affected by current low AGEX rankings. Almost the entire fleet is owned by the airline what makes operations very efficient and stabile in a complicated environment.


Initially declined to comment the matter, Mr. Revan Amadeus, Group CEO of Rajawali Group feels intrigue to respond to the friendly statement by a fellow sandpit airline CEO. 

"We at Rajawali Group are humbled by the kind attention and affectionate interest of a fellow sandpit airline. However we need to emphasize that we have no interest to let go our prized Rajawali Qatar. Qatar is the biggest open-investment country and we determined to stay here for good, saving more than 1,000 precious weekly slots and more than 12,000 beloved families."

"We continue to restructure the airline as a premium boutique airline, fine-tuning our fleet is part of the plan and business as usual. Our mission is to provide range of options for the discerning passengers to avoid flying the cattle class. As we target crème de la crème of the market, we would care less about market share domination. We happily let our fellow airline ambitiously claim the title while we pamper our distinguish guests."

"More over, debunking the claim of putting thousands employee at risk, we would guarantee that at no time, anyone at Rajawali Group is at risk. Not our employees, nor our passengers, nor our management, nor our shareholders. We take care our business prudently, employing best practice good corporate governance combined with humanistic approach. We treat our employees just like our own families and in return they take care our passengers as if they take care their own families. Even as we intentionally let go one of our subsidiary, we accommodate everyone affected to even better position at the mainline, with options of job placement around the globe, across our AOCs and our extensive alliance's network."

"Given our superb working condition and a vast career opportunity that lies within our company, I doubt anyone would prefer to work somewhere else. But should any of our staffs prefer to work on other place than our group, we would sadly bid them farewell and wish them luck on their future endeavor, hoping that we keep the good relationship beyond the employment contract. And for the final sentence to our fellow sandpit airline CEO, I would like to say 'thank you but no thank you'."

"I am Revan Amadeus, and I send this message..."


Indo would like to offer some friendly help in these crisis. The relations with the population in the deep jungles of Papua have worsened since we havent supplied them with incompetent managers in a week since the board of directors of American Hiawatha were given a free one way ticket to the adventure of a lifetime in the papua jungle visiting the indigenous jungle population which they could not refuse. The CFO of Global Group USA has been awarded with a ticket for next month meaning that we wont send anyone for the remainder of the month. If the indigenous population of papua wont receive guests in a month the relationship with the CEO Mr. Christian Pålsson might fall.

For us it is a crucial relationship and very necessary for our operation. Therefore on behalf of the Global Group we would like to offer Rajawali Group 20 free tickets for Juli with preference for middle eastern guests as the indigenous population of papua have notified us they have catered especially for middle eastern people with a selection of spices suited for middle east cuisine. This would be a perfect opportunity to reward the board of Rajawali Qatar with a ones in a lifetime irresistible reward and the CEO with a promise to get rid of incompetent leadership. 


If you have that many incompetent managers, probably you should volunteer immediately for one of those flights. If you keep hiring incompetent managers, it seems you’re one of them too!


The CEO always has a honorary seat reserved for him for these festive dinners. He often joins in for the tour of Papua but excuses himself before dinner with the fear that the menu wont be suited for the CEO´s appetite with many courses highly different from Swedish Meatballs with lingonberries. He would rather take the first Indo flight to Jakarta (we connect tens of Papua destinations to Jakarta) and enjoy his Swedish Meatballs at IKEA finishing off with a soft ice cream.

Not only managers are offered “Papua Adventures”. There once was a stewardess offering hundreds of customers a mile high club, she was eventually offered the adventure after countless violations. Some fake critics still wonder if the outcome would have been different if this Stewardess would have offered her services to the CEO. The CEO will assure anyone that his decisions at work are purely professional and not based on personal choices.

Sorry, but had to write this not at all serious response in third person. Let´s stick to Rajawali shall we?


Jakarta, June 2018

Even with collapsing airlines, Riem is still proven as the most competitive world and thanks to AGEX that show no sign of recovery for the last 6 months, we can only hope that our remaining airlines will see another day to send their aircraft to the blue sky and fly people to their destination. The first half of 2018, Rajawali Group employ a very cautious measure to develop our business and vigilantly navigate through adverse market situation. Thanks to our prudent strategy, Rajawali Group return all its AOC to profitability while maintaining our 6% worldwide marketshare, with our main carrier Rajawali Nusantara ranked 8th.

Even with our prudent strategy, we still identify room for potential growth. Our Boeing 767 fleet has been a magnificent type supplementing our 787 fleet and 737 fleet, flying ultra long haul thin route as well as short domestic trunk route. However with the aging birds and rising fuel cost, we need to look forward and gear up for future challenge. We believe Boeing is lining up its future offering very well, but our growth can't wait that long into the future, as our passengers need to get to their destination now. So in anticipation of future Boeing line up, we put a stop-gap order of a 100 Boeing 737-700ER which we will plan to deploy with Rajawali Nusantara. We believe the aircraft will continue to develop our secondary hubs in Medan (KNO/WIMM) as well as other potential hub.  


Currently from 47 767 in fleet, we already parked 24 aircraft, leaving 14 aircraft in high-density domestic configuration and only 9 767-200ER left to fly international long haul. Selected domestic trunk route will be upgauged to our newer fleet of 787 and 737-MAX8 while the remaining international long haul will be serviced by 737-700ER as it delivered.Most of the Boeing 737-700ER will be configured in 2 class layout, with 6 suites in business class and 54 premium seat in economy class, ensuring maximum comfort for your long haul flights. Along with the Boeing Sky Interior and Extra Aft Galley, we will make sure you find our narrow body offering surpasses the experience of flying our aging wide-body.

As we rightsize our fleet, eventually we will put more order for 737MAX and 787, while we might look for Bombardier to replace our Embraer. Our subsidiary will also benefit from the order, as some of the owned fleet will be leased from the main carrier to subs with very competitive price. Rajawali Africa will certainly receive some of the 737-700ER to expand the African-European network, as well as Rajawali Qatar to continue flying as preferred connecting boutique airline in the Middle East. Rajawali Singapore will continue to develop O/D network from Singapore while leaving the connection to main carrier hub at Medan. Rajawali Cargo will continue to work with our cargo partner and deliver package around the world.

Moving forward, we look for even more streamlined Rajawali Group, that able to grow even in the deepest dive of AGEX and definitely soaring high as AGEX improve.